[1] Achieving zero dioxin. An Emergency Strategy for Dioxin Elimination, by Joe Thornton. July 1994. Printed on totally chlorine-free (TCF) paper.
An investigation of the paper used by Greenpeace to print their report revealed a dioxin content, much higher than paper produced by modern chlorine dioxide bleaching. See also Chlorine and paper bleaching.
[2] Anforderungen zu emissionsbegrenzung von dioxinen und furanen, Laenderausschusses fuer Immissionsschutz, Germany (German: Measures for the limitation of dioxins and furans, State departments for imission prevention), Draft report, April 1993.
[3] Emissies van dioxinen in Nederland (Dutch: Emissions of dioxins in The Netherlands). TNO report 770501003, April 1993.
[4] Stofdossier dioxinen (Dutch: Material dossier dioxins). VITO report 941055, mid 1995.
[5] Emissions of toxic organic micro-contaminants from ship's engines: First measurements on three cruising ships. TNO report 51115, December 1992.
[6] The Relationship Between Chlorine in waste streams and Dioxin Emissions From Waste Combustor Stacks, late 1995, ASME. See the complete summary of the ASME report.
[7] Ubiquitous Nature of Dioxins: A comparison of the Dioxins Content of Common Everyday Materials with That of Pulps and Papers, Richard M. Berry ea., Canada, Environ. Sci. Technol., Vol 27, No. 6, 1993.
[8] Organohalogens: the natural alternatives, E.J. Hoekstra and E.W.B. De Leer, Chemistry in Britain, February 1995.
[9] Dioxin - Neuere Erkenntnisse zur Toxikologie und Epidemiologie, Andreas Zober, December 1993, Germany.
[10] PCDD/F emissions to atmosphere in the UK and future trends, Peter E.T. Douben, Chemosphere, Vol. 34, Nos. 5-7, pp. 1181-1189, 1997.
[11]Schadstoffbilanzen - eine Quelle von Überaschungen!', (German: A balance of toxics, a source of surprices!), Dr. E.-J. Spindler & Dr. M. Engelmann, december 1995.
[12] Cancer incidence in a population accidentally exposed to TCDD, P.A. Bertazzi e.a., University of Milano (I), Epidemiology 4:398-406, September 1993.
[13] Nature's Chemicals and Synthetic Chemicals: Comparative Toxicology, Bruce N. Ames e.a., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Vol 87, pp. 7782-7786, October 1990. From a series of three articles about carcinogenity of materials and about natural and synthetic carcinogens in our food. See also Too many rodent carcinogens. and Dietary Pesticides (99.99% All Natural).
[14] Alternatives to PVC, suppliers guide, Greenpeace UK, October 1996: Greenpeace recommends stainless steel and cast iron for pipes as alternative for PVC pipes, while an investigation done by Gastec for the gas distribution companies in The Netherlands [17] finds up to 20 times higher pollution rates for iron pipes...
[15] Disposable packaging containing PVC and PVDC in Norway (Norwegian, an unofficial translation in English is available), SEM, January 15, 1993
[16] VITO investigation of packaging of 1000 l non sparkling mineral water (in Dutch), February 1994
[17] Environmental lifecycle analyses for gas distribution systems (English version available), Gastec N.V. and CML-S&P (Centre for Environmental Science Leiden, The Netherlands), January 1996.
[18] ppb levels of dioxins were found in prehistoric clay deposits in Arkansas (2,3,7,8-TCDD accounted for 40 to 70 % of total TEQs and no furans were detected). Dioxins contaminated three separate clay lenses and surrounding materials in the mine at question. Surface soils were at background levels. No other anthropogenic compounds were found. Dwain Winters of USEPA at the Dioxin '97 conference.
[19] Chlorine Kills, A Dossier of Chlorine Accidents, Greenpeace International, 1991.
[20] Transcript of an Australian GTV9 cover story on Greenpeace and its activities and politics, Sunday September 19, 1991, 9 AM.
[21] Balaguer P., Gillesby B.E., Wu Z.F., Meek M.D., Annick J. and Zacharewsky T.R., "Assesment of chemicals alleged to posses oestrogen receptor mediated activities using in-vitro recombinant receptor/reporter gene assays", SOT 1996 Annual Meeting, Abztract 728, cited in Fundamental and Applied Toxicology Supplement, The Toxicologist, Vol 30, No.1, Part 2, March 1996.
[22] Meek M.D., Clemens J., Wu Z.F. and Zacharewsky T.R., "Assesment in the alleged oestrogen receptor-mediated activity of phthalate esters", presented at the 17th annual SETAC meeting, Washington USA, 18-21 November 1996.
[23] Soto A.M., Sonnenschein C., Chung K.L., Fernandez M.F., Olea N. and Serrano F.O., "The E-screen assay as a tool to identify oestrogens: an update on oestrogenic environmental pollutants", Environmental Health Perspectives 103(7), 113-122.
[24] Gaido K.W., Barlow K.D., Leonard L., "Use of yeast-based oestrogen receptor assay to asses chemical interaction with the oestrogen receptor", SOT 1996 Annual Meeting, Abstract 731, cited in Fundamental and Applied Toxicology Supplement, The Toxicologist, Vol 30, No.1, Part 2, March 1996.
[25] Nikiforov A.I., Keller L.H., Harris S.B., "Lack of transgenerational reproductive effects following treatment with diisononyl phthalate (DINP) ", SOT 1996 Annual Meeting, Abstract 608, cited in Fundamental and Applied Toxicology Supplement, The Toxicologist, Vol 30, No.1, Part 2, March 1996.
[26] Nikiforov A.I., Trimmer G.W., Keller L.H., Harris S.B., "Two generation reproduction study in rats with diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP) ", presented at Eurotox '96, September 22-26, 1996.
[27] Phil Barton e.a., "Report for the PVC retail working group: PVC in packaging and construction materials: an assesment of their impact on human health and the environment", 7th June 1997, NCBE ref. no.: C77/38/23.
[28] Greenpeace magazine Belgium, August 1992.
[29] The press spokesman of the Düsseldorf Public Prosecutor, Mr. Ruland, 10 april 1997, at the press conference where the official report of the fire was presented. The summary of the report is available in English and German, unfortunately not anymore on the NRW web site.
[30] Greenpeace measurements of dioxin contamination around Lengerich (Germany) of a PVC-fire, October 1992 and figures of measurements around a PVC-fire at Diest (Belgium), done by Inlupa for Greenpeace.
[31] Occupational exposure to polyvinylchloride as a risk factor for testicular cancer evaluated in a case-control study, L. Hardell, C-G Ohlson and M. Frederickson Int. J. Cancer 73, 828-830.
[32] A balance of chlorine in the Netherlands, TNO/CML-S&P report STB/95/40-I, November 16, 1995, made for the government
[33] De novo synthesis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. Proposal for a mechanistic scheme, H. Huang, A Buekens, The Science of the Total Environment, 193 (1996) 121-141
[34] Endocrine/Estrogen (E/E) Letter, February 1998.
[35] The Identification and Assessment of Oestrogenic Substances in Sewage Treatment Works Effluents, November 1996, British Environment Agency.
[36] Letter of Dr. Richard Sharpe on the Environmental Health Information Service web site (restricted admission).
[37] Eurochlor publication "Halogenated Organic Compounds in the environment", COC 94/2, with a lot of references to scientific publications.
[38] Measurements at the Akzo Nobel Chemicals Botlek (Rotterdam) 500,000 tpa VCM factory. Even measurements by Greenpeace didn't find any organochlorines, besides some traces of DCE in the adjacent harbour where the waste water is discharged after treatment.
[39] Different investigations by TNO of soils and river mud contaminated by chlorinated organics, 1995-1997.
[40] Chlor und seine Verbindungen - ihr Kreislauf in Natur und Technik (German: Chlorine and its combinations - its life cycle in nature and industry), Von Vollrath Hopp, Chemiker Zeitung, 115, 1991, page 341-350.
[41] Greenpeace Magazine (The Netherlands), 20th year,1998-1, "Does your child still plays with toxic toys?".
[42] Chemicals Cards, Data for the safe handling of chemicals, 13th edition 1998, Publication of NIA'TNO, VNCI, Samson.
[43] Evaluation of the determination of the migration of phthalate plasticisers from teething rings and soft PVC toys, TNO report V 97.823, 17 September 1997.
[44] Untersuchung von PVC-Spielzeugen auf Weichmacher (Investigation of PVC toys on softeners), TÜV Rheinland, 22 December 1997.
[45] Letter of Greenpeace Netherlands, Drs. T.H. Tukker, to the Ministery of VWS, 18 March 1998.
[46] Letter of the State Secretary of Public Health, Welfare and Sports, mss. Erica Terpstra, to Greenpeace Netherlands, 31 March 1998.
[47] Phthalates in teething-rings/animal figures for infants, CSR advisory report no. 5293, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), The Netherlands, 15 januari 1998.
[48] Phthalate migration from soft PVC toys and child-care articles, opinion expressed at the CSTEE third plenary meeting, Brussels, 24 April 1998, EU Scientific Committee on Toxicity, Ecotoxicity and the Environment (CSTEE).
[49] The Environmental Aspects of the Use of PVC in Building Products, CSIRO Molecular Science Division, July 1998. Also available at their web site, click on the "What's New" button
[50] Effects of perinatal exposure to PCBs and dioxins on early human development, C. Koopman-Esseboom, October 1995, ISBN 90-75340-03-6
[51] Levels of PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs in Human milk. Result from the Second Round of a WHO-coordinated Exposure Study. A.K.D. Liem e.a., August 1996.
[52] Paolo Mocarelli, University Department of Clinical Pathology, Hospital of Desio, Italy, at the October 21, 1996 meeting on "Chemistry, man and environment" in Milano.
[53] Inventory of Sources of Dioxin in the U.S., USEPA, March 2000, external review draft. See the USEPA web site.
[54] Evaluation of emissions from the open burning of household waste in barrels, USEPA, EPA-600/R-97-134a, November 1997. Can be downloaded from the EPA web site in .pdf format.
[55] Samples of EDC/VCM/PVC factories were analyzed for dioxin content at independent labs, sometimes more than one. The results were reviewed by an outside validator. There were four independent scientists commissioned to act as referees on design, collection and analysis. They watched the process, visited plants, visited laboratories, read and quality controlled the report, commented on it, and wouldn't sign off until their comments were satisfied.
Now, for comparison, Greenpeace broke into plants in the dead of night, stole samples of waste that is not leaving the factory at all, but is burned on site, analyzed them in their own laboratories and reported the results at a press conference. Who's ethically conflicted?
[56] Phthalate release from soft PVC baby toys, Report from the Dutch Consensus Group, Köneman, W.H., ed., RIVM report 613320 002, September 1998. Can be obtained from the Ministery of Public Health in The Netherlands.
[57] Dioxins and Furans and Hexachlorobenzene, Inventory of Releases, Environment Canada, January 1999. Can be downloaded from the CEPA website
[58] Locating and Estimating Air Emissions from Sources of Polycyclic Organic Matter, EPA-454/R-98-014, July 1998. Can be downloaded from CHIEF (Clearing House for Inventories and Emissions Factors) at the USEPA website
[59] Mira-T, Milieu- en natuurrapport Vlaanderen: thema's, 1999 (Environment and nature report Flanders: themes), Vlaamse Milieumaatschappij (Flemish Environment Agency), April 1999, ISBN 90-5350-870-8, made for the Flemish government.
[60] Dioxin and Furan Inventories, National and Regional Emissions of PCDD/PCDF, UNEP Chemicals, May 1999. Can be downloaded from the UNEP web site in .pdf format (102 pages, 616 kB).
[61] Chemical composition of wood smoke. Data compiled from a lot of sources by the USEPA. See the "burning issues" web site.
[62] Lemieux, P., Lutes, C., Abbott, J., Aldous, K., 2000. Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans from the open burning of household waste in barrels. Environ. Sci. Technol. 34:377-384.
[63] A. Yasuhara, T. Katami, T. Okuda, N. Ohno, T. Shibamoto, Formation of Dioxins during the Combustion of Newspapers in the Presence of Sodium Chloride and Poly(vinyl chloride), Environ. Sci. Technol. 2001, 35, 1372-1378.
[64] E. Wikström, The role of Chlorine during Waste Combustion, Umeå University, 1999, ISBN 91-7191-714-4
[65] Toxizität Chlororganischer Verbindungen: Einfluss der Einführung von Chlor in organische Molekule (German: Toxicity of organochlorines: influence of the introduction of chlorine in organic molecules), D. Henschler, Angew. Chem. 1994, 106, p. 1997-2012.
[66] Chlorine, the only green element - towards a wider acceptance of its role in natural cycles, Neil Winterton, Green Chemistry, 2000, 2, p. 173-225
[67] See: The Vegetarian Diet and Birth Defects and Natures hormone factory (70 k .pdf file).
[68] See: (in German).
[69] Allan, Deborah L., Raphu T., Mandelbaum, and Lawrence P. Wackett, "Rapid Hydrolysis of Atrazine to Hydroxyatrazine by Soil Bacteria.". Environmental Science & Technology, 27, (9), 1943-1946 (1993)
[70] Natural Organochlorines in Precipitation and Surface Waters, Anders Grimvall, The Natural Chemistry of Chlorine in the Environment, May 1999, World Chlorine Council.
[71] Figures of the biological waste water treatment of the Shin-Etsu EDC/VCM and Nufarm herbicide plants at the Akzo Nobel site of Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Published every year in an environmental report since 1989.
[72] Living downstream, Sandra Steingraber, 1997, ISBN 0-201-48303-3.
[73] MAK- und BAT-Werte-Liste, 1994, DfG, ISBN 3-527-27563-0. a table of the most important materials can be found at: Chlorine and cancer
[74] See the web site of Hydro Polymers and click on the EMAS report.
[75] Evers e.a. 1989, Chemiewinkel, University of Amsterdam.
[76] See: Greenpeace toxic campaign, Venice Lagoon (.pdf file, 84 kB).
[77] Dioxin Factories. A study of the creation and discharge of dioxins and other organochlorines from the production of PVC, Jane Keys, Geir Wang-Andersen, Bob Edwards, Greenpeace International, April 1993.


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